## Advanced Reservoir Engineering

### Course overview

This course provides an extended review of the practical aspects for analyzing an oil or gas reservoir. The course provides the participant employed at the operational level basic calculation sets to determine in-place oil or gas volumes, reservoir continuity and study production history to forecast future oil, gas and water production rates.

The fundamentals of each subject are developed, underlying assumptions and utility discussed, after which an example problem is worked to illustrate the principle. Work problems are addressed at the end of the class period. All calculations can be carried out with a hand held calculator or spread sheet.

### The course is designed for

Reservoir engineers and professionals who work in collaboration with reservoir engineers, including well engineers, facilities engineers, process engineers, petrophysicists and geoscientists.

### Course outline

#### Inflow performance

- Above and Below Bubble Point – PI, Vogel, Fetkovich Methods
- Effect of Formation Damage – Standing, Camacho and Raghavan
- Future Performance Predictions – Fetkovich, Klins and Clark5
- Problems

#### Gas reservoirs

- Comparing Pressure Depletion to Water Influx Recoveries
- The Material Balance Equation – Definitions and Drive Indices
- Normal Pressured Volumetric Reservoirs - The p/z Plot
- Water Drive Gas Reservoirs – OGIP, Water Influx and Drive Indices
- Geology of Overpressured Gas Reservoirs
- Determining OGIP, Water Influx and Drive Indices
- Rock properties and compressibility
- Ramagost and Farshad Method
- Solution plot method
- The Beccera method

- Replacing Static with Build Up Pressures in the Material Balance Equation
- Theoretical development, Error Plot

- Future Performance
- Applying Pseudosteady State Solution
- Applying Back Pressure Equation

#### Gas well inflow performance

- The Absolute Open Flow Potential
- Conventional Gas Well Deliverability Tests
- Four Point Back Pressure Test
- The Isochronal Test
- The Modified Isochronal Test
- Meaning of the Performance Coefficient (C) and Exponent (n).

- Non-Darcy Flow
- The Deliverability Plot

#### Wet gas properties

- Phase Diagrams
- Natural Gas Properties - Single Phase z-Factor, Gas Formation Volume Factor, Compressibility
- Retrograde Gas Condensate Reservoirs - The 2-phase z-factor
- Recombination of Produced Fluids
- Specific Gravity of a Mixture
- Hydrates
- Problems
- Determine z-factor from contaminated gas when composition is known
- Calculate unit depletion from B
_{g}changes - Determine z-factor when specific gravity is known

#### Wet gas and condensate reservoirs

- Total Well Stream Rate
- Review of a Laboratory Fluid Depletion Study
- Calculating Original Gas and Oil In Place – Separator Measurements
- Calculating Original Oil and Gas In Place – Known Composition
- Applying the Eaton and Jacoby Equation to Calculate Reserves and Performance
- Problems

#### Reservoir rocks and framework

- Log Profiles and Depositional Environments
- Clastic Compared to Carbonate Rocks
- Rock Composition
- Correlating Sand Members
- Reservoir Heterogeneity

#### Volumes and pressures

- Reservoir Volumes
- Measured and Reservoir Pressures
- Problems
- Questions and correlation problem
- Calculating original oil in place from volumetrics

#### Rock Properties

- Porosity and Permeability
- Fluid Distribution and Capillary Pressure
- Shapes of the Capillary Pressure Curve
- Porosity – Permeability Relations – “J” Function
- Mobility Ratio and the Fractional Flow Equation
- Questions
- Five capillary pressure and relative permeability problems

#### Reservoir fluids

- Phase Diagrams
- Reservoir Fluids – Definitions
- Vasquez and Brill, and Standings Correlations
- Review of Fluid Analysis Report
- Questions

#### Water influx

- Water Encroachment Model
- Steady State Water Influx - Method of Schlithius
- van Everdingen and Hurst Method
- The Carter-Tracy Method
- The Fetkovich Method
- Material Balance Approach
- Comparison of Methods

#### Displacement concepts

- Frontal Advance and Buckley Leverett
- The Stiles Method
- Problems

#### Analaysis of production performance

- Arps Curves
- Fetkovich Model
- Problems

#### Reservoir & well models

- Vertical Wellbore Case
- Horner Time and Normalizing Production

- Vertical Hydraulically Fractured Wells
- Un-fractujredHorizontal Wells
- Shale Accumulations
- Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells

#### Monitoring two phase flow production

- WOR and GOR Plots
- BasIc Performance Analysis
- Construction of Relative Permeability Curves from Performance Data
- Estimating Future Performance with Multiple Plots
- Well Diagnostic Plots

#### Oil reservoirs

- Reservoir Depletion Mechanisms
- Recovery Factors and API Recovery Equations
- Material Balance Equation – Calculating Original Oil In Place, Water Inflx, Drive Indices
- Problems

Location | Start Date | End Date | Cost | Trainer | Book |

Upon request | £2,950 | Professor Emeritus Steven Poston | Make enquiry |